The American Militia
What is the Militia?
As promised, we will now get back into the fundamental discussion for a few moments; what is
the American Militia. There has been lots of thought given to this, after all we have had 230 years
or more to think on it.
What follows is a long and a bit difficult essay by others. Read it through, study it and read again.
Take a look at the discussion at the end and see if you agree or have another view. Perhaps you
see a unique perspective and would like to comment on it? Please do so, it has been long
enough just studying this issue, it’s your turn to speak out. Take the time to respond and write
your own addition to The American Militia Essays.
Pay attention at the end of this essay, things could get a bit dicey if you choose to take action.
Copyright © 1994 Constitution Society. Permission is granted to copy with attribution for
Components of the Militia
When asked what the Militia was, George Mason, one of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution,
said, "Who are the Militia? They consist now of the whole people, except for a few public officers."
Yet we also see statutes like 10 USC 311, which defines it as "all able-bodied males at least 17
years of age and, except as provided in section 13 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or
have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States." Some state
statutes define it as "able-bodied males" of different age ranges, such as 16 through 59.
These statutes also divide the Militia into various classes, such as "organized" or "unorganized",
in the case of 10 USC 311, or "active" and "reserve", as many states do, with "active" being
considered the National or State Guards, but not the national armed forces.
To understand how these definitions have arisen, one must first understand what the Framers of
the U.S. Constitution had in mind for the new Republic they had created. They allowed for a
standing national army, but insisted that it be kept small, and although it might be the first force
to be called out, and the only force to be sent abroad, the primary defense of the country was to
be the duty of ordinary citizens, who would be kept in a state of military readiness while leading
their normal lives, and who would be called up to "repel invasions, suppress insurrections, or
execute the laws", for limited periods of time. At the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789,
the well-established tradition was for local militia units to be kept in a state of readiness in each
and every community. Such units were organized and trained locally, perhaps led by the local
town or county officials, but otherwise independent of official control when not actually called up
When lawmakers tried to define the "militia" by statute to consist of less than the entire body of
citizens, they were defining those citizens who would be required to be kept in a state of
readiness, as was done in the Militia Act of 1792, which required able-bodied males age 17
through 44 to keep a "musket or firelock". However, persons younger than 18 and older than 45
regularly responded to call-ups of the Militia and were accepted as part of it. There were even
some women who participated.
The Framers also insisted on a distinction between the "genuine" Militia and a "select" militia,
which they viewed as a danger, just as much a danger as a standing army. They did not want a
militia whose members might consist of anything less than the entire people, or at least
able-bodied ones in a certain age range, because if selected on any other basis, they might be
used to oppress other parts of the population.
Actually, George Mason provided the best definition. It only needs to be broken out into various
classes, representing the order in which persons would be called out for military service.
Qualifications like "able-bodied" or "male" or "age 18-44" only establish who would be first called
to service, with the expectation that they would be adequate for almost any situation, but it allows
for calling up other persons if needed.
This suggests a hierarchy of classes:
1. National Army.
........Full-time. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard.
........Part-time. Reserves, National Guard.
2. State and Local Select Militia. But these are not "general" militias. They are paid and
equipped by the State or by local governments.
........Full-time. State and local law enforcement officers.
........Part-time. State Guard.
3. Obligatory Militia. Able-bodied male citizens of a certain age range, who are required to be kept organized and trained, but at their own expense. Age range is 18-44 for federal purposes, but states may establish other age ranges.
4. Volunteer Militia. Citizens not part of obligatory militia who voluntarily participate in
activities of the obligatory militia, again at their own expense.
5. Ready Militia. The combination of (3) and (4) above, who would be called up after the
armed forces and the regular militia, but who are also those likely to be first on the scene in
emergency situations. It is not a "select"" militia.
6. Reserve Militia. All other citizens, including children, the elderly, the less-able, and
women, and perhaps foreign visitors as well, who might be called up after the ready militia, if
What is missing from the current picture is the ready militia. Most states now lump it in with what
we are here calling the reserve militia, and in fact often call it that. The ready militia is what the
Framers meant when they used the term "militia". It is also what the Swiss mean by the term, and
it was the Swiss model that the Framers had in mind for the United States. The ready militia was
to serve as a counterbalance to the armed forces and regular state (select) militias.
It should be noted that the obligatory militia is usually defined to exempt certain public officials,
and perhaps persons with certain occupations, whose usual duties are considered essential.
Choice of words can be indicative. 10 USC 311 lumps the ready and reserve militias into what it
calls the "unorganized" militia, with the implication that it is to remain unorganized, since no
provisions for organizing and training the ready militia are given, contrary to the intent of the
Militias are local and independent
Often heard are arguments about whether militias are state or national, but the militia, like
citizenship, is fundamentally local. We are first and foremost citizens of our local community. The
word "citizen" has the same root as the word "city". Although people may also be concurrently citizens of larger political entities, such as states or the nation, and although those entities may be considered to be composed of their citizens, they are essentially composed of localities, and it is the local community that is the basis for the social contract, although it may be considered to include a certain amount of surrounding territory. Today we would usually identify the locality with the county.
Just as militias are essentially local, so also are they essentially independent of established
authorities, since the militia may have to challenge or bypass those authorities if they abuse their
authority or fail to perform their lawful duties.
The legal basis for assemblies of militias are two natural rights: the right to assemble and the right
to keep and bear arms. Combined, they are the right to assemble bearing arms. The Framers
considered it obvious that rights which could be exercised separately could be exercised in
combination, and would have thought present attempts to outlaw independent assemblies of
militia units as absurd. The term "well-regulated" used in the Second Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution did not mean "regulated by some official". It meant "well-trained and disciplined". A
militia can and should be self-regulated.
The U.S. Constitution, in Article I Section 8, does provide for States to organize and train their
militias according to standards established by the U.S. Congress, and to appoint the officers, but
it was not the intention of that clause to authorize states to forbid local organization and training
of militia units, but to require that they be organized and trained. If the state fails to do so, people
have not only the right but the duty to organize and train themselves locally, using their own arms.
Just as they have the right and duty, failing action on the state level, to conduct elections, enforce
the laws, establish courts, and so forth.
Of course, a militia unit that is not called up by any official, but by its own members, does not have
the authority to compel participation through some kind of sanction, such as the imposition of a
fine. Therefore it will be composed of volunteers, who may not represent a cross-section of the
general population. In this situation, the militia members must make a special effort to avoid
having the militia unit take on the attributes of a private association, such as by always calling up
the militia using public notices, and allowing any responsible citizen to participate. It must also
avoid any suggestion of partisan or sectarian bias, and limit itself to constitutional actions.
To do this, a militia unit should always refer to itself as the "[state/county] militia" and not adopt
a name that would suggest some kind of private association, something that would expose its
members to legal action against it as a legal "person" or as a "conspiracy". There can't be a
conspiracy of the entire population of an area, and a court can't serve the entire population with
process, even if not all of them are present at meetings.
Militia units of 50-200 members should be organized at the local level, by going house by house,
covering entire neighborhoods, towns, and counties.
This will initially be easier to do in rural areas, where people are already more receptive to the
patriotic message. In urban areas, it may work better to start by organizing "neighbor hood
associations", then educating the members gradually until it can be converted into a
self-conscious militia unit.
Co-ordination among local units should be done using correspondence committees, which is the
traditional method. These committees do not attempt to act as regional,, state, or national
organizations, but only to facilitate communications among local units, the sharing of literature,
and the building of a consensus for action.
Some units might try to publish newsletters or other documents, but in most cases, it will be better
to publish through established magazines and various alternative media, and distribute extra
copies. Members may agree to subscribe to media that co-operate in publishing supporting
Dealing with official resistance
For some time now the Establishment has discouraged the formation of armed groups, including
independent constitutional militias. They don't want the "unorganized" militia to become organized.
Besides legal and illegal harassment, militia leaders must prepare participants to deal with
attempts to infiltrate militia units. This can take three main forms:
* Moles. Agents who pretend to be trustworthy but who are mainly focused on obtaining
information about militia members and their activities.
* Provocateurs. Agents who pretend to be responsible members, then, when least expected,
do something which seeks to discredit the militia and perhaps provoke official action against it.
* Dissipators. Agents who pretend commitment until they can assume positions of influence
within the group, then use it to divert them into ineffective or unproductive activities, such as
endless debate, socializing, and divisive disputes, or to reduce morale and resolve.
The best protection against infiltration is to teach members to be vigilant to it and to have a large
number of small units and many leaders, none of whom is critical. There should be little or no
leadership on the state or national level, other than a network of correspondence committees that
It is also important to try to establish good relations with local and state officials, to the extent
possible. Work with them to help them solve the problems of the community, and encourage them
to ask the militia to assist them. Resistance from such officials should be countered by getting
better ones elected or appointed.
Subjects for action
One of the most important subjects for action by local militia units is investigation of election fraud
and other kinds of official corruption. It will do little good to try to elect better officials if elections
are rigged, and if they are, the militia may become the only way for citizens to secure their rights.
If such fraud is found, it will also help to build public support for further militia action and for
Another key subject is to inform citizens of their right and duty, when serving as jurors in cases
in which the government is a party, to judge the law and not just the facts in the case. No matter
how despicable the defendant in a criminal case or how heinous the offense, the jury must find
the defendant not guilty if the law under which he is charged is unconstitutional or misapplied. It
is unconstitutional if it violates a constitutional right, is not based on a power delegated to
government, or is so vague that honest people may disagree on how to obey or enforce it. It is
misapplied if it is applied to acts outside its proper jurisdiction, such as a federal criminal law
applied to acts committed on state territory, or to acts not intended to be included by the
One of the most important subjects for action will be to establish an alert system for warning of
abuses of citizens by organs of the government, and mobilizing to defend them. It must be
emphasized that it is not enough for citizens to defend their rights in isolation. Only if they band
together can their rights be protected.
Education in constitutional law must also be a priority. Every citizen must be trained to interpret
the constitutionality of laws and official acts, and taught that doing so is the responsibility of each
individual, that it cannot be delegated to others, such as judges or superiors. That is the Lesson
of Nuremburg. Special attention needs to be given to educating lawyers, judges, officials, and
college and high school students. Militia members need to make sure that every public library
contains suitable books and magazines that provide education on these subjects.
Morgan Norval, ed., The Militia in 20th Century America: A Symposium, 1985, available from
Gun Owners Foundation, 5881 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.
 Stephen P. Halbrook, That Every Man Be Armed, 1984, available from the Independent
Institute, 134 98th Ave, Oakland, CA 94603.
 James M. & Kenneth F. Collier, Votescam: The Stealing of America, 1992, available from
Victoria House Press, 67 Wall St #2411, New York, NY 10005.
END – Constitution Society
Note the discussion of the term “Citizen” and its root source, development and use. Note that in
all of these essays I have used the two terms, “civilian” and “Citizen” and have clearly
differentiated between them by Capitalization, usage and description. To put it simply, a civilian
marks his place in humanity, does his chores, collects his compensation and enjoys his life. He
is a “civic couch potato” and he does not take part in the philosophical debate and selection of
laws and leaders which control his life. The Citizen is active and he does take part in civic life.
He is active and effective in such matters and by his actions he forms the society in which he
lives, by his own hand. The laws he approves and leaders he appoints form his life, and also that
of those “potatoes” less interested in lending a hand but still willing to play along.
Note the discussion of the Right to Assemble and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms. Combined
they become the Right to Assemble Bearing Arms. What a fantastic idea! But is this so? How
many “Rights” are there? There are the ten amendments in the Bill of Rights, enumerating quite
a few Rights, but wait a minute, look at Number 9! “The enumeration in the Constitution of certain
rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others (rights) retained by the people”. Now,
look at number 10! “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” I have
never seen such a excellent piece of “fine print” before. These are the catch-all last phrases of
the Bill of Rights.
The Bill of Rights does not GRANT any right, it enumerates SOME of them and others exist but
remain un-said and retained by the people. There is a nearly UNLIMITED list of individual Rights
we have as a consequence of being human; Human Rights, Inalienable Rights, God given Rights,
Rights from Natural Law; whatever you choose to call them. The government has ONLY the
powers granted in the Constitution, and all others remain with the people. Think about it. Lets
list a few of those “other” rights. The Right of free passage, to travel where and when and how you
choose so long as you do not infringe the rights of others. The Right to free expression, so long
as you do not infringe the rights of others. The Right of free Association, so long as... The Right
to be Left Alone.
The Right to be Left Alone? How can this be; and where is the “so long as...” restriction? You
can sit alone and deny any association with others and no one should bother you in any way, after
all you are not bothering, or infringing, any one else! That is the key! You may be worrying
others, you may be acting strangely in the eyes of others, you may even be pissing some one off,
but so what. If they ignored you then they would not be worried about you or upset with you or
pissed off at you. They just need to leave you alone and get over it. Yep, the Right to be Left
You see where this leads. There are many “Rights” an individual can claim as human rights.
Unfortunately, some laws have been written which take them away from us. You know all about
them and may see them in action every day. Think of free passage and then the actions of our
guardians at airports. Think of the Right to be left alone and then the authority of our guardians
to demand Identification issued by them at any time or place. What unelected bureaucrats create
rules or regulations which infringe Your Rights? Remember, “so long as you do not infringe the
rights of others...”.
Note the discussion of the phrase “well-regulated”. Ooops, we are jumping the gun. That comes
up later in an essay of its own.
Finally, we get to the heart of the matter. The Militia needs to call itself together from the general
population for the purpose of education and training. The article above begins to lay out specific
methods by which this should be done and touches on some things that should not be done so
as to remain a Constitutionally compliant body in the eyes of elected officials. Then Organizing
Strategy is presented. Read this section carefully. Are you ready to take another step in your
education? Are you ready to deal with the “Official Resistance” that may result? Keep this in
mind, there are at least 24 states which have Anti-Paramilitary Training Laws. Until you are sure if, or how, you want to form some type of official group, you are just an association of like minded friends, perhaps a “Committee of Correspondence” as was formed 230 years ago. Read the sections above on Organizing and dealing with Official Resistance. Look before you leap into
this one. There are too many legal snares out there.
Remember, from a few essays ago; “Well, when there aren't enough criminals, one makes them. One declares so many things to be a crime that it becomes impossible for men to
live without breaking laws. Who wants a nation of law-abiding citizens? What's there in
that for anyone?”
Perhaps there needs to be a Neighborhood Watch program in your community. Talk it up and
see if a “Watch with Teeth” makes sense. Go ahead and form your observation and information
network, but then begin to educate and train with them at the range. Those just watching can
shout “fire”, but those who have organized and practiced and prepared can do something about
Think about it. No one said that being part of the American Militia was going to be easy or without
some ridicule or scorn in the society of today. Oh’ but you will be so much more satisfied and
confident in your ability when you learn you are part of the American Militia. You always have
been part of it, now it is time to open your eyes a bit wider, to get out and associate with others
The American Militia has many members that can work as a team; if they can just be found.
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